Programs & Services


USA Swimming does not provide medical advice, professional diagnosis, opinion, treatment, or services to any member or other individual. This general information is for educational purposes only and not intended to be a substitute for medical or professional care. The research and opinions are those of the individual authors, not USA Swimming.

Hypoxic Blackout

A number of articles are included in this section that refer to the tragic phenomenon known as hypoxic blackout. The reader may note that this is often referred to as shallow water blackout, or hyperventilation-induced hypoxia, or voluntary hyperventilation preceding underwater swimming or extended breath-holding.  


Statement on Hypoxic Blackout    

Loss of Consciousness in Breath-Holding Swimmers    

Bob Bowman's webinar on Shallow Water Blackout

Doping Control

Doping Control Information   
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